Greenhill A Causes of meningitis in Goroka serotypes and resistance BMC Infect Dis 2016

Ali A Respiratory viruses in causing severe pneumonia in Karachi PLoS 2013


Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae in paediatric meningitis patients at Goroka General Hospital: serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility in the pre-vaccine era.
Greenhill AR, et al BMC Infect Dis 2016; 15:485

  • What population was studied?
  • In what proportion of children with meningitis was a pathogen identified on CSF?
  • How many serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae are included in the Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine, and how many serotypes exist?
  • What proportion of pneumococcal isolates from CSF will be covered by the currently used PCV in PNG?
  • What common serotypes are left out of the PCV that cause meningitis in PNG?
  • What proportion of . Haemophilus influenzae during the 1996-2005 era were resistant to chloramphenicol?
  • What proportion of S. pneumoniae isolates were resistant to penicillin?



 Role of Human Metapneumovirus, Influenza A and Respiratory Syncytial Virus in causing WHO-defined severe pneumonia in children in a developing country
Asad Ali, et al. Public Library of Science (PLOS) 2013; 8:e74756

  • What population was studied?
  • How were respiratory viruses identified?
  • What proportion of children with WHO-defined severe pneumonia (PNG classification of moderate or severe pneumonia) had respiratory viruses isolated?
  • What were the proportions of children with severe pneumonia who had Human Metapneumovirus (HMPV), Influenza A and RSV
  • What proportion of children with RSV had chest x-ray changes of pneumonia?
  • What was the relationship of RSV and other viruses to weather and seasons?
  • What are the limitations of this study, and what are the considerations in applying the study results in PNG?
  • What are the implications for antibiotic prescribing?

September 2017 CME Q&A Causes of Meningitis and Pneumonia